Paper Title
Assessing the Potential Impacts of Variation Orders on JKR Roadway Construction Projects- A Case Study Northern Region of Malaysia

The occurrence of variation orders in construction projects is undesirable due to of their negative impacts on project performance. The phenomenon of variation orders have addressed by various studies, however, the studies focused on identifying the causes of variation orders. Less of attention has been paid to evaluate the impacts of occur variation orders on construction projects, especially Roadway construction projects. Hence, the current study is concerned with assessing the impacts of variation orders on large roadway construction projects which administrated by JKR Malaysia in the northern region of Malaysia. primary is the survey questionnaire carried out among the professional persons (civil engineers, quantitative surveyors, designers) in JKR Penang, contractors firms and consultant firms which deal with Malaysia’s JKR Roadway projects. The secondary data is from selected completed road projects in the study area. It is important to mention in this context that most of the JKR's construction projects are facing variation orders, In particular, roadway construction projects. According to the results from the questionnaire and secondary data, the potential impacts related to variation orders were disputes between parties; delay in completion schedule; increase in project cost; logistic delay; poor professional relations. Also the findings showed that delay in completion schedule has the high degree of correlation with the logistic delays and. While the delay in completion schedule has high the degree of correlation with disputes between parties. And, increase in project cost has high the degree of correlation with the decrease in quality of work and moderate degree of correlation with poor safety condition. While. delay in payment has the high degree of correlation with the decrease in productivity of workers and the moderate degree of correlation with Increase in project cost. Keywords - Impacts of variation orders, Cost overrun, Time overrun, Roadway projects, JKR projects